Constructing Measures of Attitudes Based on Observations of Behaviour

Juliane K. Bücker & Maximilian Adler

How can we validly deduce attitudes from behaviour? In our workshop, we first introduce a psychological measurement theory, the Campbell paradigm, linking attitudes – as psychological attributes – to real-life behaviour. Based on this theory, we will discuss measurement development, the selection of observable, behavioural indicators for psychological attributes, and how to test the validity of the measurement instrument and its underlying theoretical assumptions. In the second part of the workshop, we will briefly introduce the Rasch model as a statistical method suitable to model the relationship between psychological attributes and real-life barriers of behaviour. Depending on participants’ preferences, we will practice applying the Rasch model either using SPSS or R (or both).

The assessment of environmental attitude and its manifestation in pro-environmental behaviour will be the main example, but participants will have the opportunity to apply the theory and Rasch model to their constructs of interest and sketch out an idea for theoretically grounded measurement.

Participants will be guided in considering and testing the suitability of measurement models to their research question. After the workshop, participants should be able to develop a psychological scale based on behavioural indicators.


20th June 2023, 9.30-15.30 (1h lunch break)

How to register

If you are interested in participating in our workshop on constructing measures, please register via email to by the 16th April. Let us know whether you would prefer to use SPSS or R (or whether both work for you).


16th April 2023


The preconference is free of charge.

Experiencing Aarhus. Digital tools for mapping psychological qualities of the environment

Organizing team
University of Milan - Marco Boffi, Nicola Rainisio
University of Cagliari - Oriana Mosca, Ivan Blecic
Politecnico di Milano - Barbara Piga, Gabriele Stancato

Short description

The workshop offers the participants the opportunity to use two digital tools for collecting behavioral and psychological data about the subjective experience in the environment and discuss the results made available to the researchers.

The exp-EIA method (Experiential Environmental Impact Assessment), developed by Università degli Studi di Milano and Politecnico di Milano, is conceived to combine geographical information and psychological constructs offering an automatic cartographic representation of the experience (e.g., emotions, restoration, landmarks). The method is integrated into City Sense, a participatory app for urban transformations (

The University of Cagliari developed a web app named Prendi i Piedi (, that is a game halfway between a treasure hunt and a point-and-click adventure, designed to encourage sustainable mobility in urban spaces through playful walks.  During the experience the research team will highlight which psycho-environmental variables are more effective in promoting a positive relationship with the visited places. 

The workshop will include a walk in the area of the conference using the digital tools, followed by a discussion about the outputs regarding the experience lived along the path.

Date / time for the workshop

June 20, 2023, 9.30-13.30


Please confirm you participation by filling in the online form at the following link:


June 4, 2023 (midnight, CET)


The event is free of charge for all the participants registered for the ICEP 2023 Conference